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Pneumatic micro-optics PDF Kindle. Prosa aus vier Jahrzehnten. Read Alpenvereins - Jahrbuch There are two indentations on the top of a cassette corresponding to each side of the cassette. On blank cassettes these indentations are protected with plastic tabs that can be broken off to prevent recording on the corresponding side of the cassette. Occasionally and usually on higher-priced cassettes, manufacturers provided a movable panel that could be used to enable or disable write-protect on tapes.
Pre-recorded cassettes do not have protective tabs, leaving the indentations open. If later required, the cassette can be made recordable again by either covering the indentation with a piece of adhesive tape or by putting some filler material into the indentation.
On some decks, the write-protect sensing lever can be manually depressed to allow recording on a protected tape. Extra care is required to avoid covering the additional indents on high bias or metal bias tape cassettes adjacent to the write-protect tabs.
In most cassettes, the magnetic tape is attached to each spool with a leader, usually made of strong plastic. This leader protects the weaker magnetic tape from the shock occurring when the tape reaches the end. Some leaders are designed to clean the magnetic heads each time the tape is played. Leader also enables to record over an existing recording cleanly, without a blip of sound that otherwise would be left from the previous recording.
Leaders can be complex: a plastic slide-in wedge anchors a short fully opaque plastic tape to the take-up hub; one or more tinted semi-opaque plastic segments follow; the clear leader a tintless semi-opaque plastic segment follows, which wraps almost all the way around the supply reel, before splicing to the magnetic tape itself. The clear leader spreads the shock load to a long stretch of tape instead of to the microscopic splice. Various patents have been issued detailing leader construction and associated tape player mechanisms to detect leaders.
The disadvantage with tape leaders is that the sound recording or playback does not start at the beginning of the tape, forcing the user to cue forward to the start of the magnetic section. For certain applications, such as dictation, special cassettes containing leaderless tapes are made, typically with stronger material and for use in machines that had more sophisticated end-of-tape prediction. Home computers that made use of cassettes as a more affordable alternative to floppy discs e.
Some cassettes were made to play a continuous loop of tape without stopping. Lengths available are from around 30 seconds to a standard full length. They are used in situations where a short message or musical jingle is to be played, either continuously or whenever a device is triggered, or whenever continuous recording or playing is needed.
Some include a sensing foil on the tape to allow tape players to re-cue. From as early as various patents have been issued, covering such uses as uni-directional, bi-directional, and compatibility with auto-shut-off and anti-tape-eating mechanisms.
One variant has a half-width loop of tape for an answering machine outgoing message, and another half-width tape on spools to record incoming messages. Cassette tape adapters allow external audio sources to be played back from any tape player, but were typically used for car audio systems. An attached audio cable with a phone connector converts the electrical signals to be read by the tape head, while mechanical gears simulate reel to reel movement without actual tapes when driven by the player mechanism.
This feature each includes a rail to guide the tape to the spool and prevent an unclean roll from forming. The competition responded by inserting additional deflector pins closer to the coils in the lower plastic case half. Some low-priced and pre-recorded compact cassettes were made without pulleys; the tape is pulled directly over the capstan drive. Cassette playback suffered from some flaws frustrating to both professionals and home recording enthusiasts.
Tape speed could vary between devices, resulting in pitch that was too low or too high. Speed often was calibrated at the factory, and could not be changed by users.
The slow tape speed increased tape hiss and noise, and in practice delivered higher values of wow and flutter. Different tape formulation and noise reduction schemes artificially boosted or cut high frequencies and inadvertently elevated noise levels.
Noise reduction also adds some artifacts to the sound which a trained ear can hear, sometimes quite easily. Wow and Flutter, however, can sometimes be added intentionally to recordings for aesthetic reasons. See Lo-fi music. A common mechanical problem occurred when a defective player or resistance in the tape path causes a failure to keep sufficient tension on the take-up spool.
This would cause the magnetic tape to be fed out through the bottom of the cassette and become tangled in the mechanism of the player. In these cases the player was said to have "eaten" or "chewed" the tape, often destroying the playability of the cassette.
The first cassette machines e. Early machines required attaching an external dynamic microphone. Most units from the s onwards also incorporated built-in condenser microphones, which have extended high-frequency response, but may also pick up noises from the recorder's motor.
A portable recorder format still common today is a long box, the width of a cassette, with a speaker at the top, a cassette bay in the middle, and "piano key" controls at the bottom edge. Another format is only slightly larger than the cassette, known popularly as the "Walkman" a Sony trademark.
The markings of "piano key" controls soon converged and became a de facto standard. They are still emulated on many software control panels. These symbols are commonly a square for "stop", a vertically pointed triangle with a line under it for "eject", a right-pointing triangle for "play", double triangles for "fast-forward" and "rewind", a red dot for "record", and a vertically divided square two rectangles side-by-side for "pause". Stereo recorders eventually evolved into high fidelity and were known as cassette decks, after the reel-to-reel decks.
Hi-Fi cassette decks, in contrast to cassette recorders and cassette players, often didn't have built-in amplification or speakers. Many formats of cassette players and recorders have evolved over the years. Initially all were top loading, usually with cassette on one side, and VU meters and recording level controls on the other side.
Older models used combinations of levers and sliding buttons for control. A major innovation was the front-loading arrangement. Pioneer 's angled cassette bay and the exposed bays of some Sansui models eventually were standardized as a front-loading door into which a cassette would be loaded. Later models would adopt electronic buttons, and replace conventional meters which could be "pegged" when overloaded [ clarification needed ] with electronic LED or vacuum fluorescent displays , with level controls typically being controlled by either rotary controls or side-by-side sliders.
Unlike typical cassette decks that use a single head for both record and playback plus a second head for erasing, the Nakamichi , like the better reel-to-reel recorders, used three separate heads to optimize these functions. Other contenders for the highest "HiFi" quality on this medium were two companies already widely known for their excellent quality reel-to-reel tape recorders: Tandberg and Revox consumer brand of the Swiss professional Studer company for studio equipment.
Tandberg started with combi-head machines, such as the TCD , and continued with the TCD 3x0 series with separate playback and recording heads. All TCD-models possessed dual-capstan drives, belt-driven from a single capstan motor and two separate reel motors. After a disastrous overinvestment in colour television production, Tandberg folded and revived without the HiFi-branch these came from. Both cassette units possessed double capstan drives, but with two independent, electronically controlled capstan motors and two separate reel motors.
The head assembly moved by actuating a damped solenoid movement, eliminating all belt drives and other wearable parts. These machines rivaled the Nakamichi in frequency and dynamic range. A last step taken by Revox produced even more-advanced cassette drives with electronic fine tuning of bias and equalization during recording. Revox also produced amplifiers, a very expensive FM tuner, and a pickup with a special parallel-arm mechanism of their own design.
After releasing that product, Studer encountered financial difficulties. It had to save itself by folding its Revox-branch and all its consumer products except their last reel-to-reel recorder, the B While some [ who? Technically, both camps in this debate were still within the original cassette specification as no tolerance for frequency response is provided above HX Pro was adopted by many other high-end manufacturers.
As they became aimed at more casual users, fewer decks had microphone inputs. Dual decks became popular and incorporated into home entertainment systems of all sizes for tape dubbing. Although the quality would suffer each time a source was copied, there are no mechanical restrictions on copying from a record, radio, or another cassette source.
Even as CD recorders are becoming more popular, some incorporate cassette decks for professional applications. Another format that made an impact on culture in the s was the radio-cassette, aka the " boom box " a name used commonly only in English-speaking North America , which combined the portable cassette deck with a radio tuner and speakers capable of producing significant sound levels.
These devices became synonymous with urban youth culture in entertainment, which led to the somewhat derisive nickname "ghetto blaster. This also led to such cultural practises as breakdancing.
Applications for car stereos varied widely. Auto manufacturers in the U. In the s and s, as the cost of building CD players declined, many manufacturers offered a CD player. The CD player eventually supplanted the cassette deck as standard equipment, but some cars, especially those targeted at older drivers, were offered with the option of a cassette player, either by itself or sometimes in combination with a CD slot.
Most new cars can still accommodate aftermarket cassette players, and the auxiliary jack advertised for MP3 players can be used also with portable cassette players, but was the first model year for which no manufacturer offered factory-installed cassette players.
Although the cassettes themselves were relatively durable, the players required regular maintenance to perform properly. Head cleaning may be done with long swabs, soaked with isopropyl alcohol , or cassette-shaped devices that could be inserted into a tape deck to remove buildup of iron-oxide from the heads , tape-drive capstan, and pinch-roller.
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