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Search within The Specials. List View. Gallery View. Autographed UK 3-track 7 vinyl single, front laminated picture sleeve. This item was signed by three of the founding members Terry Hall, Lynval Golding and Horace Panter during an in-store signing for their Encore album. The sleeve is boldly signed by Terry, Lynval and Horace across the front in black marker pen.
Autographed UK 5-track 7 vinyl EP, front laminated picture sleeve. Thereafter, Mandela rejected Lembede's Africanism and embraced the idea of a multi-racial front against apartheid. Basner law firm, which was owned by a communist,  although his increasing commitment to work and activism meant he spent less time with his family.
In , the ANC began preparation for a joint Defiance Campaign against apartheid with Indian and communist groups, founding a National Voluntary Board to recruit volunteers. The campaign was designed to follow the path of nonviolent resistance influenced by Mahatma Gandhi ; some supported this for ethical reasons, but Mandela instead considered it pragmatic.
Marks from making public appearances; unable to maintain his position, he recommended Mandela as his successor. Although Africanists opposed his candidacy, Mandela was elected to be regional president in October.
Found guilty of "statutory communism", a term that the government used to describe most opposition to apartheid, their sentence of nine months' hard labour was suspended for two years. The speech laid out a contingency plan for a scenario in which the ANC was banned. This Mandela Plan, or M-Plan, involved dividing the organisation into a cell structure with a more centralised leadership.
Mandela obtained work as an attorney for the firm Terblanche and Briggish, before moving to the liberal-run Helman and Michel, passing qualification exams to become a full-fledged attorney. The only African-run law firm in the country, it was popular with aggrieved blacks, often dealing with cases of police brutality.
Disliked by the authorities, the firm was forced to relocate to a remote location after their office permit was removed under the Group Areas Act ; as a result, their clientele dwindled. He may have had affairs with ANC member Lillian Ngoyi and secretary Ruth Mompati; various individuals close to Mandela in this period have stated that the latter bore him a child. After taking part in the unsuccessful protest to prevent the forced relocation of all black people from the Sophiatown suburb of Johannesburg in February , Mandela concluded that violent action would prove necessary to end apartheid and white minority rule.
Although the Chinese government supported the anti-apartheid struggle, they believed the movement insufficiently prepared for guerrilla warfare. Based on the responses, a Freedom Charter was drafted by Rusty Bernstein , calling for the creation of a democratic, non-racialist state with the nationalisation of major industry.
The charter was adopted at a June conference in Kliptown ; 3, delegates attended the event, which was forcibly closed down by police. Following the end of a second ban in September , Mandela went on a working holiday to Transkei to discuss the implications of the Bantu Authorities Act, with local tribal leaders, also visiting his mother and Noengland before proceeding to Cape Town. Initiating divorce proceedings in May , she claimed that Mandela had physically abused her; he denied the allegations, and fought for custody of their children.
She later became involved in ANC activities, spending several weeks in prison. In December , Mandela was arrested alongside most of the ANC national executive, and accused of "high treason" against the state. Held in Johannesburg Prison amid mass protests, they underwent a preparatory examination before being granted bail. In January , Oswald Pirow was appointed to prosecute the case, and in February the judge ruled that there was "sufficient reason" for the defendants to go on trial in the Transvaal Supreme Court.
In August, one charge was dropped, and in October the prosecution withdrew its indictment, submitting a reformulated version in November which argued that the ANC leadership committed high treason by advocating violent revolution, a charge the defendants denied. One of the PAC-organised demonstrations was fired upon by police, resulting in the deaths of 69 protesters in the Sharpeville massacre.
The incident brought international condemnation of the government and resulted in rioting throughout South Africa, with Mandela publicly burning his pass in solidarity. Responding to the unrest, the government implemented state of emergency measures, declaring martial law and banning the ANC and PAC; in March, they arrested Mandela and other activists, imprisoning them for five months without charge in the unsanitary conditions of the Pretoria Local prison.
Disguised as a chauffeur, Mandela travelled around the country incognito, organising the ANC's new cell structure and the planned mass stay-at-home strike. Referred to as the "Black Pimpernel" in the press—a reference to Emma Orczy 's novel The Scarlet Pimpernel —a warrant for his arrest was put out by the police.
Becoming chairman of the militant group, Mandela gained ideas from literature on guerrilla warfare by Marxist militants Mao and Che Guevara as well as from the military theorist Carl von Clausewitz. Operating through a cell structure, MK planned to carry out acts of sabotage that would exert maximum pressure on the government with minimum casualties; they sought to bomb military installations, power plants, telephone lines, and transport links at night, when civilians were not present.
Mandela stated that they chose sabotage because it was the least harmful action, did not involve killing, and offered the best hope for racial reconciliation afterwards; he nevertheless acknowledged that should this have failed then guerrilla warfare might have been necessary. Representing himself with Slovo as legal advisor, Mandela intended to use the trial to showcase "the ANC's moral opposition to racism" while supporters demonstrated outside the court. Found guilty, he was sentenced to five years' imprisonment; as he left the courtroom, supporters sang " Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika ".
On 11 July , police raided Liliesleaf Farm , arresting those they found there and uncovering paperwork documenting MK's activities, some of which mentioned Mandela. The Rivonia Trial began at Pretoria Supreme Court in October, with Mandela and his comrades charged with four counts of sabotage and conspiracy to violently overthrow the government; their chief prosecutor was Percy Yutar. Although four of the accused denied involvement with MK, Mandela and the other five accused admitted sabotage but denied that they had ever agreed to initiate guerrilla war against the government.
That speech—which was inspired by Castro's " History Will Absolve Me "—was widely reported in the press despite official censorship. In , Mandela and his co-accused were transferred from Pretoria to the prison on Robben Island , remaining there for the next 18 years.
Mandela was initially forbidden to wear sunglasses, and the glare from the lime permanently damaged his eyesight. The political prisoners took part in work and hunger strikes —the latter considered largely ineffective by Mandela—to improve prison conditions, viewing this as a microcosm of the anti-apartheid struggle.
Though attending Christian Sunday services, Mandela studied Islam. Winnie was released from prison in but was forcibly settled in Brandfort and remained unable to see him. From onwards, prison conditions improved; black prisoners were given trousers rather than shorts, games were permitted, and the standard of their food was raised.
Mandela, seeing an increase in the physical and mental abuse of prisoners, complained to visiting judges, who had Badenhorst reassigned.
By , Mandela had become a Class A prisoner,  which allowed him greater numbers of visits and letters. He corresponded with anti-apartheid activists like Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Desmond Tutu.
Botha's National Party government had permitted Coloured and Indian citizens to vote for their own parliaments, which had control over education, health, and housing, but black Africans were excluded from the system; like Mandela, the UDF saw this as an attempt to divide the anti-apartheid movement on racial lines. The early s witnessed an escalation of violence across the country, and many predicted civil war. This was accompanied by economic stagnation as various multinational banks—under pressure from an international lobby—had stopped investing in South Africa.
Numerous banks and Thatcher asked Botha to release Mandela—then at the height of his international fame—to defuse the volatile situation. Mandela spurned the offer, releasing a statement through his daughter Zindzi stating, "What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people [ANC] remains banned? Only free men can negotiate. A prisoner cannot enter into contracts. In , Mandela underwent surgery on an enlarged prostate gland, before being given new solitary quarters on the ground floor.
Coetsee organised negotiations between Mandela and a team of four government figures starting in May ; the team agreed to the release of political prisoners and the legalisation of the ANC on the condition that they permanently renounce violence, break links with the Communist Party, and not insist on majority rule.
Mandela rejected these conditions, insisting that the ANC would end its armed activities only when the government renounced violence. Mandela's 70th birthday in July attracted international attention, including a tribute concert at London's Wembley Stadium that was televised and watched by an estimated million viewers.
Though some encouraged him to divorce her, he decided to remain loyal until she was found guilty by trial. Recovering from tuberculosis exacerbated by the damp conditions in his cell,  in December , Mandela was moved to Victor Verster Prison near Paarl. He was housed in the relative comfort of a warder's house with a personal cook, and he used the time to complete his LLB degree.
In , Botha suffered a stroke; although he would retain the state presidency, he stepped down as leader of the National Party, to be replaced by F. Although some were deeply opposed to his plans, de Klerk met with Mandela in December to discuss the situation, a meeting both men considered friendly, before legalising all formerly banned political parties in February and announcing Mandela's unconditional release.
Leaving Victor Verster Prison on 11 February, Mandela held Winnie's hand in front of amassed crowds and the press; the event was broadcast live across the world. He expressed hope that the government would agree to negotiations, so that "there may no longer be the need for the armed struggle", and insisted that his main focus was to bring peace to the black majority and give them the right to vote in national and local elections.
Bush , addressed both Houses of Congress and visited eight cities, being particularly popular among the African-American community. In May , Mandela led a multiracial ANC delegation into preliminary negotiations with a government delegation of 11 Afrikaner men. Mandela impressed them with his discussions of Afrikaner history, and the negotiations led to the Groot Schuur Minute , in which the government lifted the state of emergency.
He gained funding for her defence from the International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa and from Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi , but in June she was found guilty and sentenced to six years in prison, reduced to two on appeal.
On 13 April , Mandela publicly announced his separation from Winnie. Mandela argued that there was a " third force " within the state intelligence services fuelling the "slaughter of the people" and openly blamed de Klerk—whom he increasingly distrusted—for the Sebokeng massacre.
Although Cyril Ramaphosa led the ANC's delegation, Mandela remained a key figure, and after de Klerk used the closing speech to condemn the ANC's violence, he took to the stage to denounce de Klerk as the "head of an illegitimate, discredited minority regime".
Following the Bisho massacre , in which 28 ANC supporters and one soldier were shot dead by the Ciskei Defence Force during a protest march, Mandela realised that mass action was leading to further violence and resumed negotiations in September. He agreed to do so on the conditions that all political prisoners be released, that Zulu traditional weapons be banned, and that Zulu hostels would be fenced off, the latter two measures intended to prevent further Inkatha attacks; de Klerk reluctantly agreed.
The ANC also conceded to safeguarding the jobs of white civil servants; such concessions brought fierce internal criticism. Although criticised by socialist ANC members, he had been encouraged to embrace private enterprise by members of the Chinese and Vietnamese Communist parties at the January World Economic Forum in Switzerland. With the election set for 27 April , the ANC began campaigning, opening election offices and orchestrating People's Forums across the country at which Mandela could appear, as a popular figure with great status among black South Africans.
The party's slogan was "a better life for all", although it was not explained how this development would be funded. Concerned that COSAG would undermine the election, particularly in the wake of the conflict in Bophuthatswana and the Shell House massacre —incidents of violence involving the AWB and Inkatha, respectively—Mandela met with Afrikaner politicians and generals, including P. Botha, Pik Botha and Constand Viljoen , persuading many to work within the democratic system.
With de Klerk, he also convinced Inkatha's Buthelezi to enter the elections rather than launch a war of secession. The newly elected National Assembly's first act was to formally elect Mandela as South Africa's first black chief executive.
His inauguration took place in Pretoria on 10 May , televised to a billion viewers globally. The event was attended by four thousand guests, including world leaders from a wide range of geographic and ideological backgrounds. Under the Interim Constitution, Inkatha and the National Party were entitled to seats in the government by virtue of winning at least 20 seats. In keeping with earlier agreements, both de Klerk and Thabo Mbeki were given the position of Deputy President.
Aged 76, he faced various ailments, and although exhibiting continued energy, he felt isolated and lonely. In December , Mandela published Long Walk to Freedom , an autobiography based around a manuscript he had written in prison, augmented by interviews conducted with American journalist Richard Stengel. They had first met in July when she was still in mourning, but their friendship grew into a partnership, with Machel accompanying him on many of his foreign visits. She turned down Mandela's first marriage proposal, wanting to retain some independence and dividing her time between Mozambique and Johannesburg.
Presiding over the transition from apartheid minority rule to a multicultural democracy, Mandela saw national reconciliation as the primary task of his presidency. Mandela personally met with senior figures of the apartheid regime, including Hendrik Verwoerd 's widow, Betsie Schoombie , and lawyer Percy Yutar , also laying a wreath by the statue of Afrikaner hero Daniel Theron. Mandela wore a Springbok shirt at the final against New Zealand, and after the Springboks won the match, Mandela presented the trophy to captain Francois Pienaar , an Afrikaner.
This was widely seen as a major step in the reconciliation of white and black South Africans; as de Klerk later put it, "Mandela won the hearts of millions of white rugby fans. Mandela oversaw the formation of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate crimes committed under apartheid by both the government and the ANC, appointing Tutu as its chair. To prevent the creation of martyrs, the commission granted individual amnesties in exchange for testimony of crimes committed during the apartheid era.
Dedicated in February , it held two years of hearings detailing rapes, torture, bombings, and assassinations, before issuing its final report in October Both de Klerk and Mbeki appealed to have parts of the report suppressed, though only de Klerk's appeal was successful. Mandela's administration inherited a country with a huge disparity in wealth and services between white and black communities. The Land Reform Act 3 of safeguarded the rights of labour tenants living on farms where they grew crops or grazed livestock.
This legislation ensured that such tenants could not be evicted without a court order or if they were over the age of Mandela later admitted that he had personally neglected the issue, in part due to public reticence in discussing issues surrounding sex in South Africa, and that he had instead left the issue for Mbeki to deal with. Further problems were caused by the exodus of thousands of skilled white South Africans from the country, who were escaping the increasing crime rates, higher taxes, and the impact of positive discrimination toward blacks in employment.
This exodus resulted in a brain drain , and Mandela criticised those who left. Mandela expressed the view that "South Africa's future foreign relations [should] be based on our belief that human rights should be the core of international relations".
He used the event to criticise the "narrow, chauvinistic interests" of the Israeli government in stalling negotiations to end the Israeli—Palestinian conflict and urged India and Pakistan to negotiate to end the Kashmir conflict , for which he was criticised by both Israel and India. However, under pressure from the PRC, in November he cut recognition of Taiwan, and in May paid an official visit to Beijing.
Mandela attracted controversy for his close relationship with Indonesian president Suharto , whose regime was responsible for mass human rights abuses, although on a July visit to Indonesia he privately urged Suharto to withdraw from the occupation of East Timor.
Mandela proposed that they be tried in a third country, which was agreed to by all parties; governed by Scots law , the trial was held at Camp Zeist in the Netherlands in April , and found one of the two men guilty.
Mandela echoed Mbeki's calls for an " African Renaissance ", and was greatly concerned with issues on the continent. The action was not authorised by Mandela himself, who was out of the country at the time, but by Buthelezi, who was serving as acting president during Mandela's absence.
The new Constitution of South Africa was agreed upon by parliament in May , enshrining a series of institutions to place checks on political and administrative authority within a constitutional democracy.
He hoped that Ramaphosa would succeed him, believing Mbeki to be too inflexible and intolerant of criticism, but the ANC elected Mbeki regardless. Zuma's candidacy was challenged by Winnie, whose populist rhetoric had gained her a strong following within the party, although Zuma defeated her in a landslide victory vote at the election. Mandela's relationship with Machel had intensified; in February , he publicly stated that he was "in love with a remarkable lady", and under pressure from Tutu, who urged him to set an example for young people, he organised a wedding for his 80th birthday, in July that year.
He gave his farewell speech to Parliament on 29 March when it adjourned prior to the general elections, after which he retired. Retiring in June , Mandela aimed to lead a quiet family life, divided between Johannesburg and Qunu. Although he set about authoring a sequel to his first autobiography, to be titled The Presidential Years , it was abandoned before publication. Publicly, Mandela became more vocal in criticising Western powers.
He strongly opposed the NATO intervention in Kosovo and called it an attempt by the world's powerful nations to police the entire world. Bush wants is Iraqi oil ". In June , aged 85 and amid failing health, Mandela announced that he was "retiring from retirement" and retreating from public life, remarking, "Don't call me, I will call you. He retained some involvement in international affairs. Bush and first met the then-Senator Barack Obama. When this proved ineffective, he spoke out publicly against Mugabe in , asking him to step down "with residual respect and a modicum of dignity.
Mandela announced the formation of this new group, The Elders , in a speech delivered on his 89th birthday. Mandela's 90th birthday was marked across the country on 18 July , with the main celebrations held at Qunu,  and a concert in his honour in Hyde Park , London.
Mandela was more at ease with Mbeki's successor, Zuma,  although the Nelson Mandela Foundation was upset when his grandson, Mandla Mandela , flew him out to the Eastern Cape to attend a pro-Zuma rally in the midst of a storm in In , Mandela successfully campaigned for South Africa to host the FIFA World Cup , declaring that there would be "few better gifts for us" in the year marking a decade since the fall of apartheid.
In February , Mandela was briefly hospitalised with a respiratory infection , attracting international attention,   before being re-admitted for a lung infection and gallstone removal in December After suffering from a prolonged respiratory infection, Mandela died on 5 December at the age of 95, at around local time at his home in Houghton, surrounded by his family. Mandela's body lay in state from 11 to 13 December at the Union Buildings in Pretoria and a state funeral was held on 15 December in Qunu.
Mandela identified as both an African nationalist , an ideological position he held since joining the ANC,  and as a socialist. The historian Sabelo J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni described Mandela as a "liberal African nationalist—decolonial humanist",  while political analyst Raymond Suttner cautioned against labelling Mandela a liberal and stated that Mandela displayed a "hybrid socio-political make-up".
At the same time he rejected other aspects of their thought, such as the anti-white sentiment of many African nationalists. His political development was strongly influenced by his legal training and practice, in particular his hope to achieve change not through violence but through "legal revolution".
Although he presented himself in an autocratic manner in several speeches, Mandela was a devout believer in democracy and abided by majority decisions even when deeply disagreeing with them. On one side he adhered to ideas about collective leadership, although on the other believed that there were scenarios in which a leader had to be decisive and act without consultation to achieve a particular objective.
According to Lodge, Mandela's political thought reflected tensions between his support for liberal democracy and pre-colonial African forms of consensus decision making.
Mandela advocated the ultimate establishment of a classless society,  with Sampson describing him as being "openly opposed to capitalism, private land-ownership and the power of big money". Ellis also found evidence that Mandela had been an active member of the South African Communist Party during the late s and early s,  something that was confirmed after his death by both the ANC and the SACP, the latter of which claimed that he was not only a member of the party, but also served on its Central Committee.
The Freedom Charter, which Mandela had helped create, called for the nationalisation of banks, gold mines and land, to ensure equal distribution of wealth. Mandela was widely considered a charismatic leader ,  described by biographer Mary Benson as "a born mass leader who could not help magnetizing people". For political scientists Betty Glad and Robert Blanton, Mandela was an "exceptionally intelligent, shrewd, and loyal leader". Mandela was a private person who often concealed his emotions and confided in very few people.
He was raised in the Methodist denomination of Christianity; the Methodist Church of Southern Africa claimed that he retained his allegiance to them throughout his life. Mandela was very self-conscious about being a man and regularly made references to manhood. By the time of his death, within South Africa Mandela was widely considered both "the father of the nation"  and "the founding father of democracy". Mandela's international fame had emerged during his incarceration in the s, when he became the world's most famous prisoner, a symbol of the anti-apartheid cause, and an icon for millions who embraced the ideal of human equality.
Mandela generated controversy throughout his career as an activist and politician,  having detractors on both the right and the radical left. Wilderson III —accused him of selling out for agreeing to enter negotiations with the apartheid government and for not implementing the reforms of the Freedom Charter during his presidency.
Over the course of his life, Mandela was given over awards, accolades, prizes, honorary degrees and citizenships in recognition of his political achievements. John and granted him membership in the Order of Merit. In , Johannesburg granted Mandela the Freedom of the City ,  and in a Mandela statue was unveiled at the spot where Mandela was released from prison.
It called on individuals to donate 67 minutes to doing something for others, commemorating the 67 years that Mandela had been a part of the movement. The first biography of Mandela was authored by Mary Benson , based on brief interviews with him that she had conducted in the s. Since the late s, Mandela's image began to appear on a proliferation of items, among them "photographs, paintings, drawings, statues, public murals, buttons, t-shirts, refrigerator magnets, and more",  items that have been characterised as "Mandela kitsch".
Following his death, many internet memes appeared featuring images of Mandela with his inspirational quotes superimposed onto them.
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