What is vanguardism and why do anarchists reject it? Retrieved 1 January Terrorism and Communism. Cited from P. Goode ed. Howard and J. Political Quarterly. Socialist Courier. Retrieved June 17, The history of an idea', Survey 62, January, pp. Archived from the original on October 27, Retrieved Translated by Libri Incogniti.
Il Programma Comunista. Retrieved 11 November Anti-Bolshevik Communism. London: Merlin Press. Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory. Retrieved 8 July — via The Anarchist Library. International Council Correspondence. III 1. The Revolution Betrayed.
Eastman, Max. Retrieved 31 May Au pays du grand mensonge. Internal Discussion Bulletin of the Workers Party. The New International.
XII 10 : — State Capitalism and World Revolution. Chicago: Charles H. Publishing Company. Fordham University. Retrieved 19 January In James H. Weaver ed. Modern Political Economy. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Left and right: the prospects for liberty. Auburn, Ala. International Herald and Tribune. Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis.
Indianapolis: LibertyClassics. Fascism: Doctrine and Institutions. Fertig, University of California Press, A Primer of Italian Fascism. University of Nebraska Press, Under the Axe of Fascism. Economy and Society Vol. London: Routledge. In Deutschmann, David Retrieved 8 July — via Marxists Internet Archive. Special Report. Financial Times. January Xinhua News Agency.
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Part of a Politics series. Concepts Bureaucratic collectivism State capitalism. Related topics Leninism Marxism Trotskyism. Wikiquote has quotations related to: State capitalism. Library resources about State capitalism. Resources in your library Resources in other libraries. This threat was backed up by the arrest of the bishops, with the exception of Nigel who had taken refuge in Devizes Castle ; the bishop only surrendered after Stephen besieged the castle and threatened to execute Roger le Poer.
Anglo-Norman warfare during the civil war was characterised by attritional military campaigns, in which commanders tried to raid enemy lands and seize castles in order to allow them to take control of their adversaries' territory, ultimately winning slow, strategic victories. Stephen and Matilda's households centred on small bodies of knights called the familia regis ; this inner circle formed the basis for a headquarters in any military campaign.
The Normans had first developed castles in the 10th and 11th centuries, and their occupation of England after had made extensive use of them. Most castles took the form of earthwork and timber motte-and-bailey or ringwork constructs; easily built with local labour and resources, these were resilient and easy to defend. The Anglo-Norman elite became adept at strategically placing these castles along rivers and valleys to control populations, trade and regions.
Unlike the more traditional designs, these required expensive skilled labourers and could only be built slowly over many seasons. Although these square keeps later proved to have vulnerabilities, the ballistae and mangonels used in the s were significantly less powerful than the later trebuchet designs, giving defenders a substantial advantage over attackers. Both sides responded by building new castles, sometimes creating systems of strategic fortifications.
In the south-west Matilda's supporters built a range of castles to protect the territory, usually motte-and-bailey designs such as those at Winchcombe , Upper Slaughter , or Bampton.
Another feature of the war was the creation of many " counter-castles ". At least 17 such sites have been identified through documentary and archaeological research, but this likely under-estimates the number that were built during the conflict. While most survive poorly, the earthworks of 'the Rings' near Corfe in Dorset is an unusually well preserved example.
King Stephen was extremely wealthy, well-mannered, modest and liked by his peers; he was also considered a man capable of firm action. The Empress's faction lacked an equivalent war leader to Stephen. Matilda had a firm grounding in government from her time as empress, where she had presided in court cases and acted as regent in Italy with the Imperial army on campaign. Geoffrey and Matilda's marriage was not an easy one; it had almost collapsed altogether in For most of the war, therefore, the Angevin armies were led into battle by a handful of senior nobles.
The most important of these was Robert of Gloucester, the half-brother of the Empress. He was known for his qualities as a statesman, his military experience and leadership ability. Fitz Count was apparently motivated by a strong moral duty to uphold his oath to Matilda and proved critical in defending the Thames corridor.
The Angevin invasion finally arrived in August. Baldwin de Redvers crossed over from Normandy to Wareham in an initial attempt to capture a port to receive the Empress Matilda's invading army, but Stephen's forces forced him to retreat into the south-west. Stephen responded by promptly moving south, besieging Arundel and trapping Matilda inside the castle.
Contemporary chroniclers suggested that Henry argued that it would be in Stephen's own best interests to release the Empress and concentrate instead on attacking Robert, and Stephen may have seen Robert, not the Empress, as his main opponent at this point in the conflict.
Although there had been few new defections to the Empress, Matilda now controlled a compact block of territory stretching out from Gloucester and Bristol south-west into Devon and Cornwall, west into the Welsh Marches and east as far as Oxford and Wallingford, threatening London.
At the start of , Nigel , the Bishop of Ely, whose castles Stephen had confiscated the previous year, rebelled against Stephen as well. While Stephen and his army besieged Lincoln Castle at the start of , Robert of Gloucester and Ranulf of Chester advanced on the king's position with a somewhat larger force. Robert took Stephen back to Gloucester, where the king met with the Empress Matilda, and was then moved to Bristol Castle , traditionally used for holding high-status prisoners.
He had made a private deal with the Empress Matilda that he would deliver the support of the church, if she agreed to give him control over church business in England. The clergy gathered again in Winchester after Easter to declare the Empress "Lady of England and Normandy" as a precursor to her coronation. Meanwhile, Geoffrey of Anjou invaded Normandy again and, in the absence of Waleran of Beaumont, who was still fighting in England, Geoffrey took all the duchy south of the River Seine and east of the Risle.
His friend and advisor Waleron was one of those who decided to defect in mid, crossing into Normandy to secure his ancestral possessions by allying himself with the Angevins, and bringing Worcestershire into the Empress's camp. Other supporters of the Empress were restored in their former strongholds, such as Bishop Nigel of Ely, and others still received new earldoms in the west of England.
The royal control over the minting of coins broke down, leading to coins being struck by local barons and bishops across the country. Stephen's wife Matilda played a critical part in keeping the king's cause alive during his captivity.
Queen Matilda gathered Stephen's remaining lieutenants around her and the royal family in the south-east, advancing into London when the population rejected the Empress. The Empress's position was transformed by her defeat at the rout of Winchester. Following their retreat from London, Robert of Gloucester and the Empress besieged Henry in his episcopal castle at Winchester in July. With both Stephen and Robert held prisoner, negotiations were held to try to agree a long term peace settlement, but Queen Matilda was unwilling to offer any compromise to the Empress, and Robert refused to accept any offer to encourage him to change sides to Stephen.
During mid Robert returned to Normandy to assist Geoffrey with operations against some of Stephen's remaining followers there; he returned to England later in the year. Matilda stayed with Fitz Count for a period, then reestablished her court at Devizes. The war between the two sides in England reached a stalemate in the mids, while Geoffrey of Anjou consolidated his hold on power in Normandy, being recognised as duke of Normandy after taking Rouen in Once again, the Angevin cavalry proved too strong, and for a moment it appeared that Stephen might be captured for a second time.
In late , Stephen faced a new threat in the east, when Geoffrey de Mandeville , the Earl of Essex , rose up in rebellion against the king in East Anglia. For a period, the situation continued to worsen. Ranulf of Chester revolted once again in the middle of , splitting up Stephen's Honour of Lancaster between himself and Prince Henry.
After the war ground on, but progressing slightly better for Stephen. The character of the conflict in England gradually began to shift; as historian Frank Barlow suggests, by the late s "the civil war was over", barring the occasional outbreak of fighting.
One potential explanation is his general courtesy to a member of his extended family; another is that he was starting to consider how to end the war peacefully, and saw this as a way of building a relationship with Henry. Many of the most powerful nobles began to make their own truces and disarmament agreements, signing treaties between one another that typically promised an end to bilateral hostilities, limited the building of new castles, or agreed limits to the size of armies sent against one another.
Matilda remained in Normandy for the rest of the war, focusing on stabilising the duchy and promoting her son's rights to the English throne. His prestige and power increased further when he unexpectedly married Eleanor of Aquitaine in ; Eleanor was the attractive Duchess of Aquitaine and the recently divorced wife of Louis VII of France , and the marriage made Henry the future ruler of a huge swathe of territory across France.
In the final years of the war, Stephen too began to focus on the issue of his family and the succession. The Anarchist Cookbook by William Powell. Anarchy by Errico Malatesta.
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