Burke's playing is an example of an individual, unique, distinctive style, a hybrid of his classical training, the traditional Sligo fiddle style and various other influences. The most common instruments used in Irish traditional dance music, whose history goes back several hundred years, are the fiddle, tin whistle, flute and Uilleann pipes. Instruments such as button accordion and concertina made their appearances in Irish traditional music late in the 19th century. The 4-string tenor banjo , first used by Irish musicians in the US in the s, is now fully accepted.
The guitar was used as far back as the s first appearing on some of the recordings of Michael Coleman and his contemporaries. The bouzouki only entered the traditional Irish music world in the late s. Traditional harp-playing died out in the late 18th century, and was revived by the McPeake Family of Belfast, Derek Bell , Mary O'Hara and others in the midth century. Although often encountered, it plays a fringe role in Irish Traditional dance music. The piano is commonly used for accompaniment.
On many of these recordings the piano accompaniment was woeful because the backers were unfamiliar with Irish music. However, Morrison avoided using the studio piano players and hand-picked his own. The vamping style used by these piano backers has largely remained. One of the most important instruments in the traditional repertoire, the fiddle or violin — there is no physical difference is played differently in widely varying regional styles. The fiddle has ancient roots in Ireland being played as far back as the 8th century  The fiddle is also mentioned in the book of leinster in ca.
The modern violin was ubiquitous in Ireland by the early s. These fiddlers did much to popularise Irish music in the States in the s and s. Joe Hayes. The flute has been an integral part of Irish traditional music since roughly the middle of the 19th century, when art musicians largely abandoned the wooden simple-system flute having a conical bore, and fewer keys for the metal Boehm system flutes of present-day classical music.
Although the choice of the Albert-system, wooden flute over the metal was initially driven by the fact that, being "outdated" castoffs, the old flutes were available cheaply second-hand, the wooden instrument has a distinct sound and continues to be commonly preferred by traditional musicians to this day.
A number of excellent players— Joanie Madden being perhaps the best known—use the Western concert flute , but many others find that the simple system flute best suits traditional fluting. Original flutes from the pre-Boehm era continue in use, but since the s a number of craftsmen have revived the art of wooden flute making.
Some flutes are even made of PVC ; these are especially popular with new learners and as travelling instruments, being both less expensive than wooden instruments and far more resistant to changes in humidity. The tin whistle or metal whistle, which with its nearly identical fingering might be called a cousin of the simple-system flute, is also popular. It was mass-produced in 19th century Manchester England, as an inexpensive instrument.
Clarke whistles almost identical to the first ones made by that company are still available, although the original version, pitched in C, has mostly been replaced for traditional music by that pitched in D, the "basic key" of traditional music. The other common design consists of a barrel made of seamless tubing fitted into a plastic or wooden mouthpiece.
Skilled craftsmen make fine custom whistles from a range of materials including not only aluminium, brass, and steel tubing but synthetic materials and tropical hardwoods; despite this, more than a few longtime professionals stick with ordinary factory made whistles. Irish schoolchildren are generally taught the rudiments of playing on the tin whistle, just as school children in many other countries are taught the soprano recorder.
The low whistle , a derivative of the common tin whistle, is also popular, although some musicians find it less agile for session playing than the flute or the ordinary D whistle. Uilleann pipes pronounced ill-in or ill-yun are a complex instrument. Tradition holds that seven years learning, seven years practising and seven years playing is required before a piper could be said to have mastered his instrument.
Many Pavee Traveller families, such as the Fureys and Dorans and Keenans, are famous for the pipers among them. Famous was also the McPeake Family, who toured Europe.
Uilleann pipes are among the most complex forms of bagpipes ; they possess a chanter with a double reed and a two-octave range, three single-reed drones, and, in the complete version known as a full set, a trio of regulators all with double reeds and keys worked by the piper's forearm, capable of providing harmonic support for the melody.
Virtually all uilleann pipers begin playing with a half set, lacking the regulators and consisting of only bellows, bag, chanter, and drones. Some choose never to play the full set, and many make little use of the regulators.
The bag is filled with air by a bellows held between the piper's elbow and side, rather than by the performer's lungs as in the highland pipes and almost all other forms of bagpipe, aside from the Scottish smallpipes , Pastoral pipes which also plays with regulators , the Northumbrian pipes of northern England, and the Border pipes found in both parts of the Anglo-Scottish Border country. The harp is among the chief symbols of Ireland.
The Celtic harp, seen on Irish coinage and used in Guinness advertising, was played as long ago as the 10th century. In ancient times, the harpers were greatly respected and, along with poets and scribes, assigned a high place amongst the most significant retainers of the old Gaelic order of lords and chieftains. The native Irish harping tradition was an aristocratic art music with its own canon and rules for arrangement and compositional structure, only tangentially associated with the folkloric music of the common people, the ancestor of present-day Irish traditional music.
Some of the late exponents of the harping tradition, such as O'Carolan, were influenced by the Italian Baroque art music of such composers as Vivaldi, which could be heard in the theatres and concert halls of Dublin.
The harping tradition did not long outlast the native Gaelic aristocracy which supported it. By the early 19th century, the Irish harp and its music were for all intents and purposes dead. Tunes from the harping tradition survived only as unharmonised melodies which had been picked up by the folkloric tradition, or were preserved as notated in collections such as Edward Bunting 's, he attended the Belfast Harp Festival in in which the tunes were most often modified to make them fit for the drawing room pianofortes of the Anglicised middle and upper classes.
The first generations of 20th century revivalists, mostly playing the gut-strung frequently replaced with nylon after the Second World War neo-Celtic harp with the pads of their fingers rather than the old brass-strung harp plucked with long fingernails, tended to take the dance tunes and song airs of Irish traditional music, along with such old harp tunes as they could find, and applied to them techniques derived from the orchestral pedal harp and an approach to rhythm, arrangement, and tempo that often had more in common with mainstream classical music than with either the old harping tradition or the living tradition of Irish music.
A separate Belfast tradition of harp-accompanied folk-singing was preserved by the McPeake Family. Over the past thirty years a revival of the early Irish harp has been growing, with replicas of the medieval instruments being played, using strings of brass, silver, and even gold. This revival grew through the work of a number of musicians including Arnold Dolmetsch in s England, Alan Stivell in s Brittany, and most importantly Ann Heymann in the US from the s to the present.
The best of these have a solid background in genuine Irish traditional music, often having strong competency on another instrument more common in the living tradition, such as the fiddle or concertina, and work very hard at adapting the harp to traditional music, as well as reconstructing what they can of the old harpers' music on the basis of the few manuscript sources which exist.
However, the harp continues to occupy a place on the fringe of Irish traditional music. The accordion plays a major part in modern Irish music. The accordion spread to Ireland late in the 19th century.
In its ten-key form melodeon , it is claimed that it was popular across the island. While uncommon, the melodeon is still played in some parts of Ireland, in particular in Connemara by Johnny Connolly. Modern Irish accordion players generally prefer the 2 row button accordion. Unlike similar accordions used in other European and American music traditions, the rows are tuned a semi-tone apart.
This allows the instrument to be played chromatically in melody. Dublin native James Keane brought the instrument to New York where he maintained an influential recording and performing career from the s to the present.
Their greater range, ease of changing key, more fluent action, along with their strong musette tuning blended seamlessly with the other instruments and were highly valued during this period. The latest revival of traditional music from the late s also revived the interest in this versatile instrument.
Like the button key accordion, a new playing style has emerged with a dry tuning , lighter style of playing and a more rhythmically varied bass. Concertinas are manufactured in several types, the most common in Irish traditional music being the Anglo system with a few musicians now playing the English system.
Each differs from the other in construction and playing technique. The most distinctive characteristic of the Anglo system is that each button sounds a different note, depending on whether the bellows are compressed or expanded.
Anglo concertinas typically have either two or three rows of buttons that sound notes, plus an "air button" located near the right thumb that allows the player to fill or empty the bellows without sounding a note. She is even listed in the Guinness Book of World Records for being the most recorded artist in the entire world. The famous singers in music industry like Arijit Singh, Shreya Ghoshal, Sunidhi Chauhan, Sonu Nigam etc have been known for their versatility and the raw emotions that their songs evoke in the hearts of the listeners.
Sign In. How it Works. Sign Up. Slowly Moderately Lively Fast. YouTube Content ID. This emotional and very pensive royalty-free background atmospheric soundtrack is perfect for accompanying a sad, sorrowful, or dramatic cinematic drama scene, ethnic trailers, life story projects, travel, nature, documentaries, and landscape projects. Features: bansuri - Indian flute.
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A mix of relaxing sounds with a scent of Indian culture. Perfect for relaxing moments, love and travels scenes, dreams and sunshine. In the style of Buddha Bar. Particles Of Life. Divine Nature. Crystall - "Nem Me Olhea! Healing Zone compiled by Ital. Falling Up. Spiritual Vibes. Only show releases from this period. Back Catalogue. Coming soon. DJ charts. Genre Home Page. Juno Recommends. Releases Last 2 Weeks. Releases Last 4 Weeks. Releases Last 8 Weeks.
Releases Since I Last Came. Studies on medicinal applications of psychedelics ceased entirely in the United States when the Controlled Substances Act was passed in Schedule I compounds are claimed to possess "significant potential for abuse and dependence " and have "no recognized medicinal value",  effectively rendering them illegal to use in the United States for all purposes.
Despite objections from the scientific community, authorized research into therapeutic applications of psychedelic drugs had been discontinued worldwide by the s.
Despite broad prohibition, unofficial psychedelic research and therapeutic sessions continued nevertheless in the following decades. Some therapists exploited windows of opportunity preceding scheduling of particular substances or, alternatively, developed non-drug techniques such as Holotropic Breathwork however following a report commissioned by the Scottish Charities Office , concerns about the risk that the hyperventilation technique could cause seizure or lead to psychosis in vulnerable people caused the Findhorn Foundation to suspend its breathwork programme  for achieving similar states of consciousness.
Informal psychedelic therapy was conducted clandestinely in underground networks consisting of sessions carried out both by licensed therapists and autodidacts within the community. In the early s, a renewal of interest in the psychiatric use of psychedelics contributed to an increase in clinical research centering on the psychopharmacological effects of these drugs and their subsequent applications.
Advances in science and technology allowed researchers to collect and interpret extensive data from animal studies, and the advent of new technologies such as PET and MRI scanning made it possible to examine the sites of action of hallucinogens in the brain.
As of , global treaties listing LSD and psilocybin as "Schedule I" controlled substances continues to inhibit a better understanding of these drugs.
Much of the renewed clinical research has been conducted with psilocybin and MDMA in the United States with special permission and breaktrough therapy designations by the FDA , while other studies have investigated the mechanisms and effects of ayahuasca and LSD. Phase two trials conducted between and reported an overall remission rate of No complications of LSD administration were observed.
As of , Johns Hopkins University and New York University have conducted large randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Also, more research is necessary to understand the biological properties of a mystical experience.
Psychedelic substances which may have therapeutic uses include psilocybin the main active compound found in magic mushrooms , LSD , and mescaline the main active compound in the peyote cactus.
Some research has shown that these substances have helped people with such mental disorders as obsessive-compulsive disorder , post-traumatic stress disorder , alcoholism , depression , and cluster headaches. In general, however, the drugs remain poorly understood. Their effects are strongly dependent on the environment in which they are given and on the recipient's state of mind set and setting.
Studies by Humphry Osmond , Betty Eisner , and others examined the possibility that psychedelic therapy could treat alcoholism or, less commonly, other addictions. One review of the usefulness of psychedelic therapy in treating alcoholism concluded that the possibility was neither proven nor disproven. This treatment effect from LSD on alcohol misuse was also seen at 2 to 3 months and at 6 months, but was not statistically significant at 12 months post-treatment.
Among the three trials that reported total abstinence from alcohol use, there was also a significant beneficial effect of LSD at the first reported follow-up, which ranged from 1 to 3 months after discharge from each treatment program. The lack of conclusive evidence notwithstanding, individual case reports are often dramatic. Bill Wilson , the founder of Alcoholics Anonymous participated in medically supervised experiments in the s on the effects of LSD on alcoholism.
Bill is quoted as saying "It is a generally acknowledged fact in spiritual development that ego reduction makes the influx of God's grace possible. If, therefore, under LSD we can have a temporary reduction, so that we can better see what we are and where we are going—well, that might be of some help. The goal might become clearer. So I consider LSD to be of some value to some people, and practically no damage to anyone.
It will never take the place of any of the existing means by which we can reduce the ego, and keep it reduced. However, he felt this method only should be attempted by individuals with well-developed super-egos. I find myself with a heightened colour perception and an appreciation of beauty almost destroyed by my years of depressions. During the early s and s the National Institute of Mental Health sponsored the study of psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin and LSD to alleviate the debilitating anxiety and depression patients with terminal diagnoses may feel.
The more recently published research strengthens the findings from the s and s showing the drug is extremely effective in reducing anxiety and depression in this patient population once carefully screened and has few adverse effects when administered in a psychotherapy setting and under medical supervision. The psychologists leading psychedelic drug therapy trials found that end of life patients often suffer from the emotional turmoil of dying more than the physical aspects.
This mindset makes it difficult for patients to find meaning and enjoyment in life during their last few months or years. While all patients have completely different experiences on these mind altering drugs the research subjects interviewed all expressed they had, "heightened clarity and confidence about their personal values and priorities, and a renewed or enhanced recognition of intrinsic meaning and value of life.
There is some evidence indicating that psilocybin with psychological support may be effective for ameliorating treatment-resistant depression. The study found that chronic, intermittent, low doses of N,N-Dimethyltryptamine produced an antidepressant-like phenotype and enhanced fear extinction learning without impacting working memory or social interaction.
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