As for the argument from justice, we humans are hardly the ones to assess the enormity of our sins. In other words, our sin is deserving of infinite punishment because of the infinite glory of the One against whom it is perpetrated. In other words, if those in hell never cease to sin, why should they ever cease to suffer?
If their sins have not been fully paid for in hell, on what grounds does justice permit them to be annihilated? Regardless of what one thinks about the identity of the beast and false prophet, no evangelical denies that Satan is a sentient being. To read the text version please click the link.
This article is part of our larger resource library of terms important to the Christian faith. From heaven and hell, to communion and baptism , we want to provide easy to read and understand articles that answer your questions about theological terms and their meaning.
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Create widget. Popular user-defined tags for this product:? Sign In Sign in to add your own tags to this product. Gifting on Steam The Steam Community. Support Forums Stats. All rights reserved. All trademarks are property of their respective owners in the US and other countries. VAT included in all prices where applicable. In Islam, Jahannam is the final destiny of evildoers and is regarded as necessary for God 's divine justice. God's punishments are by definition considered to be justified, since God holds absolute sovereignty.
Furthermore, with regard to predestination , one of six articles of faith in Islam, the question of how creatures be punished for their deeds arises. The inhabitants of afterlife places are not dogmatically determined in Islam, thus it is up to individual and critical interpretation of the Qur'an as to who enters Hell. A common concern is the fate of non-Muslims and if they will be punished for not belonging to the right religion. An often-recited quranic verse implies that righteous non-Muslims will be saved on Judgement Day :.
Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans—those who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness—will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve. However some scholars hold this verse may be set aside as only applying before the arrival of Muhammad. Another criterion to determine the justice of Hell's punishment derives from its duration, on which Islamic scholars disagree.
Some scholars state that Hell is eternal, others hold that Hell exists to purify rather than inflict pain,  and others state that Hell itself will cease to exist. The degree of free will differs in Islamic thought. Based on Sunni traditions, God wrote everything that will happen on a tablet before creating the world, therefore human free will is not beyond God's influence.
This results in the problem: how punishment is justified since God made humans the way they will sin. In this tradition, in Ashari thought, God created good and evil deeds, which humans decide upon—humans have their own possibility to choose, but God retains sovereignty of all possibilities.
This still leaves the question of why God set out those people's lives or the negative choice of deeds which result in Hell, and why God created the possibility to become evil. In Islamic thought, evil is considered to be movement away from good, and God created this possibility so that humans are able to recognize good.
As with other Jewish writings of the Second Temple period, the New Testament text distinguishes two words, both translated "Hell" in older English Bibles: Hades , "the grave", and Gehenna where God "can destroy both body and soul". A minority of Christians read this to mean that neither Hades nor Gehenna are eternal but refer to the ultimate destruction of the wicked in the Lake of Fire in a consuming fire, but which because of the Greek words used in translating from the Hebrew text has become confused with Greek myths and ideas.
From the sixth century BC onward, the Greeks developed pagan ideas for the dead, and of reincarnation and even transmigration of souls. Christians picked up these pagan beliefs inferred by the Greek of immortality of the soul, or spirit being of a mortal individual, which survives the death of the body of this world and this lifetime, which is at odds and in contrast to the scriptural teaching that the dead go to the grave and know nothing and then at the end, an eternal oblivion of the wicked and an eternal life for the saints.
Scripture makes clear that the dead are awaiting resurrection at the last judgment, when Christ comes and also when each person will receive his reward or are part of those lost with the wicked. The Greek words used for those Bibles written in Greek, came loaded with ideas not in line with the original Hebrew, but since at the time, Greek was used as basically English is used today to communicate between people across the world, it was translated into these Greek words, and giving an incorrect understanding of the penalty of sin.
In the Hebrew text when people died they went to Sheol , the grave and the wicked ultimately went to Gehenna which is the consuming by fire. So when the grave or the eternal oblivion of the wicked was translated into Greek, the word Hades was sometimes used, which is a Greek term for the realm of the dead. Nevertheless, the meaning depending on context was the grave, death, or the end of the wicked in which they are ultimately destroyed or perish. So we see where the grave or death or eventual destruction of the wicked, was translated using Greek words that since they had no exact ones to use, became a mix of mistranslation, pagan influence, and Greek myth associated with the word, but its original meaning was simple death or the destruction of the wicked at the end.
Christian mortalism is the doctrine that all men and women, including Christians, must die, and do not continue and are not conscious after death. Therefore, annihilationism includes the doctrine that "the wicked" are also destroyed rather than tormented forever in traditional "Hell" or the lake of fire. Christian mortalism and annihilationism are directly related to the doctrine of conditional immortality , the idea that a human soul is not immortal unless it is given eternal life at the Second Coming of Christ and the resurrection of the dead.
Such a belief is based on the many texts which state that the wicked perish:. Annihilationism asserts that God will eventually destroy or annihilate the wicked when they are consumed in the Lake of Fire at the end, leaving only the righteous to live on in immortality.
Conditional immortality asserts that souls are naturally mortal, and those who reject Christ are separated from the sustaining power of God, thus dying off on their own. This is seen in the texts making clear the alternatives at the end are to perish or to have eternal, everlasting life:. And that the consequence for sin at the day of judgment when God will judge both the living and the dead when He appears is death, not burning forever.
God's gift is eternal life, very different from the penalty of sin:. The mortality of the soul has been held throughout the history of both Judaism and Christianity,   with many biblical scholars looking at the issue through the Hebrew text, have denied the teaching of innate immortality.
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